Background: Glioblastoma (GBM), the most lethal primary brain tumor, has limited treatment options upon recurrence after chemoradiation and bevacizumab. TRC105 (carotuximab), a chimeric anti-endoglin (CD105) antibody, inhibits angiogenesis and potentiates activity of VEGF inhibitor bevacizumab in preclinical models. This study sought to assess safety, pharmacokinetics, and efficacy of TRC105 for bevacizumab-refractory GBM.

Methods: We conducted a pre-registered (NCT01564914), multicenter, open-label phase II clinical trial (ENDOT). We administered 10 mg/kg TRC105 monotherapy (first cohort) in adults with GBM and radiographic progression following radiation, temozolomide and bevacizumab therapy. Primary outcome was median time-to-progression (TTP), amended after first cohort's enrollment to median overall survival (mOS). Secondary outcomes were objective response rate, safety and tolerability, and progression-free survival (PFS).

Results: 6 patients were enrolled in TRC105 monotherapy cohort. Median TTP and PFS of 5 evaluable patients receiving monotherapy was 1.4 months, in whom plasma VEGF-A levels were elevated post-therapy. Lack of response led to protocol amendment, and second cohort's addition of bevacizumab+TRC105 with primary endpoint of mOS. 16 patients were enrolled in bevacizumab+TRC105 cohort. mOS of 15 evaluable patients was 5.7 (95%CI: 4.2-9.8) months. All 22 patients had measurable disease at baseline. Median PFS of 14 evaluable patients receiving bevacizumab+TRC105 was 1.8 months (95%CI 1.2-2.1). Serum TRC105 was measurable above target concentration of 25 ug/mL in all evaluable patients. Study medications were well-tolerated in both cohorts. Combined administration did not potentiate known toxicities of either medication, with cerebral hemorrhage not observed.

Conclusions: Single-agent TRC105 lacks activity in bevacizumab-refractory GBM, possibly secondary to upregulated VEGF-A expression. Meaningful mOS in bevacizumab+TRC105 cohort warrants further trials to investigate efficacy of combination therapy.

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