Targeted therapy and immunotherapy have redefined cancer treatment. While they have enhanced tumor response and improved survival rates in many cancer types, toxicities continue to occur, and these often involve the oral cavity. Broadly reported as "mucositis" or "stomatitis," oral toxicities induced by targeted therapies differ clinically and mechanistically from those associated with conventional chemotherapy. Manifesting primarily as mucosal lesions, salivary gland hypofunction, or orofacial neuropathies, these oral toxicities may nonetheless lead to significant morbidity and impact patients' quality of life, thereby compromising clinical outcomes. We conclude that familiarity with the spectrum of associated toxicities and understanding of their pathogenesis represent important areas of clinical research and may lead to better characterization, prevention, and management of these adverse events.

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Copyright: © 2023 by the authors. Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) license (https:// creativecommons.org/licenses/by/ 4.0/).

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