Bones are the third most common site of metastatic disease. Treatment is rarely curative; rather, it seeks to control disease progression and palliate symptoms. Imaging evaluation of a patient with symptoms of metastatic bone disease should begin with plain X-rays. Further imaging consists of a combination of (PET)-CT scan and bone scintigraphy. We recommend performing a biopsy after imaging workup has been conducted. Metastatic bone disease is managed with a combination of systemic treatment, radiotherapy (RT), and surgery. External beam RT (EBRT) is used for pain control and postoperatively after fracture stabilization. Single-fraction and multiple-fractions schemes are equally effective achieving pain control. Adequate assessment of fracture risk should guide the decision to stabilize an impending fracture. Despite low specificity, plain X-rays are the first tool to determine risk of impending fractures. CT scan offers a higher positive predictive value and can add diagnostic value. Surgical management depends on the patient’s characteristics, tumor type, and location of fracture/bone stock. Fixation options include plate and screw fixation, intramedullary (IM) nailing, and endoprostheses. Despite widespread use, the need for prophylactic stabilization of the entire femur should be individually analyzed in each patient due to higher complication rates of long stems. Keywords: bone metastasis, pathological fracture, radiotherapy, surgery
Gonzalez, M. R., Bryce-Alberti, M., & Pretell-Mazzini, J. (2022). Management of Long Bones Metastatic Disease: Concepts That We All Know but Not Always Remember. Orthopedic research and reviews, 14, 393–406. https://doi.org/10.2147/ORR.S379603
Available to all.