Introduction: National Comprehensive Cancer Network HCC guidelines recommend Y90 to treat BCLC-C patients only in select cases given the development of systemic regimens. We sought to identify ideal candidates for Y90 by assessing survival and toxicities in this patient group.

Materials and methods: The Radiation-Emitting Selective Internal radiation spheres in Non-resectable tumor registry is a prospective observational study (NCT: 02,685,631). Patients with advanced HCC were stratified into 3 groups based on tumor location, Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group (ECOG) performance status, and liver function. Group 1: liver isolated HCC, ECOG 0 and Child Pugh (CP) A (n = 12, 16%), Group 2: liver isolated HCC, ECOG ≥ 1 or CP B/C (n = 37, 49%), and Group 3: extrahepatic HCC with any ECOG or CP score (n = 26, 35%). Patients in any group could have macrovascular invasion. Overall survival (OS) and progression-free survival (PFS) with 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) were calculated. Grade 3 + toxicities were tracked using Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events v5. Cox proportional hazard model was performed to determine factors affecting OS.

Results: Seventy-five BCLC-C patients treated between 2015 and 2019 were reviewed. The groups were similar in age, sex, race, and ethnicity (all p > 0.05). Bilobar disease was least common in Group 1 (p < 0.001). Median OS of the entire cohort was 13.6 (95% CI 7.5-16.1) months. Median OS of Groups 1-3 were 21.8, 13.1 and 11.5 months respectively (p = 0.6). Median PFS for the cohort was 6.3 (4.8-14.7) months. Median PFS for group 1 was not reached. Mean PFS for Group 1 was 17.3 ± 4.8 months. Median PFS for Groups 2 and 3 was 6.8 and 5.9 months (X2 = 1.5, p = 0.5). Twenty-four Grade 3 or greater toxicities developed, most commonly hyperbilirubinemia (8/75, 11%) and thrombocytopenia (2/75, 3%). The incidence of toxicities between groups was similar (all p > 0.05). Cox Proportional Hazard analysis predicted shorter OS with CP class B/C (X2 = 6.7, p = 0.01), while macrovascular invasion (X2 = 0.5, p = 0.5) and ECOG score of ≥ 1 (X2 = 2.1, p = 0.3) was not associated with OS.

Conclusions: OS of CPA patients with advanced HCC and performance status of 0 was 21.8 months following Y90. CP A cirrhosis is the best predictor of prolonged OS in advanced (BCLC-C) HCC.

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