Gliomas, the most common type of malignant primary brain tumor, were conventionally classified through WHO Grades I–IV (now 1–4), with low-grade gliomas being entities belonging to Grades 1 or 2. While the focus of the WHO Classification for Central Nervous System (CNS) tumors had historically been on histopathological attributes, the recently released fifth edition of the classification (WHO CNS5) characterizes brain tumors, including gliomas, using an integration of histological and molecular features, including their epigenetic changes such as histone methylation, DNA methylation, and histone acetylation, which are increasingly being used for the classification of low-grade gliomas. This review describes the current understanding of the role of DNA methylation, demethylation, and histone modification in pathogenesis, clinical behavior, and outcomes of brain tumors, in particular of low-grade gliomas. The review also highlights potential diagnostic and/or therapeutic targets in associated cellular biomolecules, structures, and processes. Targeting of MGMT promoter methylation, TET-hTDG-BER pathway, association of G-CIMP with key gene mutations, PARP inhibition, IDH and 2-HG-associated processes, TERT mutation and ARL9-associated pathways, DNA Methyltransferase (DNMT) inhibition, Histone Deacetylase (HDAC) inhibition, BET inhibition, CpG site DNA methylation signatures, along with others, present exciting avenues for translational research. This review also summarizes the current clinical trial landscape associated with the therapeutic utility of epigenetics in low-grade gliomas. Much of the evidence currently remains restricted to preclinical studies, warranting further investigation to demonstrate true clinical utility.

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