Purpose: Compare overall survival (OS) and breast cancer-specific survival (BCSS) outcomes of breast conservative therapy (BCT) and mastectomy in a large cohort of patients with early-stage triple negative breast cancer (TNBC), using a propensity score-based matching approach.

Methods: Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) database was used to study the role of RT in early stage TNBC. Primary end points were OS and BCSS. Cox proportional hazard regression models and Kaplan-Meier plots were used to generate the desired outcomes. Propensity score matching was done to minimize bias.

Results: 12,761 patients with T1-2N0M0 TNBC as their first malignancy were retrieved. Of these 7237 had lumpectomy with RT, and 5524 had mastectomy only. Age, race, marital status, tumor laterality, grade and stage, and receipt of chemotherapy were prognostic variables for OS and BCSS. Among 4848 matched subjects, the 5-year OS was significantly higher in patients with lumpectomy and RT (89%) compared to mastectomy alone (84.5%) (p-value <0.001). Similarly, BCSS was significantly higher in patients with lumpectomy and RT (93%) compared to mastectomy alone (91%) (p-value <0.001). On subgroup analysis, patients who are younger than 40 had similar survival outcomes after either mastectomy alone or lumpectomy with RT. However, those who are older than 60, have any grade or T stage had better survival outcomes with lumpectomy and RT.

Conclusions: Overall, lumpectomy followed by RT is associated with better OS and BCSS compared to mastectomy in T1-2N0M0 TNBC patients. Further research is needed to determine the optimal treatment strategy for specific patient subgroups.

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Published by Elsevier Ltd. This is an open access article under the CC BY-NC-ND license (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/).

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